Diplomacy and Language (a Russian Embassy to Italy in 1659). Magic, Texts and Travel: Homage to a Scholar, Will Ryan. Janet M. Hartley and Denis J. B. Shaw (eds). London: SGECR, 2021. P. 192–199.
The article addresses the relation of referential expressions and co-occurring kinetic phenomena (hand and head gestures) on the material of the RUPEX multimodal corpus. The results reflect significant differences in how individual movements and gestures are aligned with two major types of reference (full NPs vs. reduced expressions). It was initially assumed that full NPs are more often accompanied by a gesture. Our data support this hypothesis not only through the material of hand gestures, but also through head movements. Moreover, full NPs are more likely to be accompanied by downward movements in both manual and cephalic channels, as well as by metadiscourse gestures, in comparison to reduced referential units (personal and demonstrative pronouns). In addition, pronouns are more likely to be aligned with pointing hand gestures and zero reference is often accompanied by descriptive hand gestures. However, the kinetic behavior of the interlocutors is determined by a variety of factors, including the topic of the conversation, which predisposes to certain types of gestures and the relative position of the interlocutors.
In the present article, we offer a detailed reply to alternative interpretations of our explanation of two eleventh-century phrases inscribed many times on the walls of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod: коуни рони and парехъ мари. According to our previous article in this journal, the phrases have a Semitic origin: Hebrew qūmī ronnī and Syriac /barren̲k mār/, respectively. In both instances new empirical evidence is provided by S. Ju. Temčin. In the case of коуни рони we argue that his alternative hypothesis cannot be maintained for a number of compelling reasons; our interpretation stands as it is. In the case of парехъ мари we basically agree with Temčin and provide evidence that sheds further light on its path of transmission into Slavic.
Stat'ja predstavljaet soboj predvaritel'nuju publikaciju berestjanyh gramot, najdennyh v Velikom Novgorode i Staroj Russe v arheologicheskom sezone 2019 g.
The article discusses the impact of the artistic life of Moscow in the mid-14th— early 15th centuries on the condition and fate of the monuments of pre-Mongol time on the lands of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir. Assumption Cathedral of Vladimir upon Klyazma constantly remained in the focus of the political life of Grand Duke Ivan Kalita and his descendants. The domes of the Cathedral being regilded by Moscow mastes, the frescoes and the iconostasis being made by Moscow painters and the temple treasury being preserved and increased by the Moscow princes demonstrate the special place of Vladimir upon Klyazma as the second “mother of cities” in Russia after Kiev.
The article deals with the diachronic path of Russian pronoun expansion, which affected the period of the 11th–17th centuries: paki li ∅pro soromit ∅pro sebe svobodna > jesli on osramit — ona svobodna ‘if he rapes [the slave], she is freed’ (the treaty of 1191–1192 between Novgorod, Gotland, and the German Cities, and its modern translation). The initial trigger of this phenomenon is often attributed to the realm of the third person since the third-person auxiliary was lost first and the third-person subject pronoun massively expanded earlier than the first- and second-person subject pronouns. Nevertheless, one cannot argue that the latter was caused by the former, since the new subject pronouns did not only replace the old auxiliary forms but were also detected in finite verbal clauses where no auxiliaries were ever used. To explore what exactly caused the expansion of pronouns and how this expansion took place in different types of clauses, a diachronic analysis of finite clauses with reduced subject reference was conducted, with a special focus on the type of the predicate. Within the analysis, the referential data of three different Old Russian registers —informal, official and literary—were examined and compared to each other. The results support the hypothesis of copula drop as a trigger for the expansion of pronouns and demonstrate that several intermediate stages of this process can be detected in official and literary texts, where the course of evolution was slower. Thus, only official texts allow us to discover the earlier stage of new referential pronouns substituting former verbal copulas, and only in literary works can we find the transitional elliptical pattern without pronouns or copulas, which existed before the new pronominal pattern.
The article deals with the distribution of full and hypocoristic forms of some widely given Christian personal names in the Old Russian language of the 11th–15th centuries. We discuss the dichotomy between full and hypocoristic forms of the same names, according to the social status of the person: Vasilij (Vasil’ko, Vasil’), Mixail (Mixalko, Mixal), Georgij (Jurij, Djurdi, Gjurgij, etc.), Dmitrij (Dmitr). With the help of diachronic analysis, we track the general evolution in the field of Old Russian Christian naming. It was found that at the early stage Christian names appear only in their full version and with reference to saints and church figures, while lay persons normally carry original Slavic names. Subsequently, Christian names began to be used more regularly in everyday life, first (from 11th to end 13th) in their hypocoristic form (-ko derivatives for princes and noble persons, truncated forms like Dmitr for people standing lower in the social hierarchy). At this stage Christian hypocorisms function primarily as adaptive means for borrowed names and hardly ever have any diminutive or affectional meaning. By the 14th century, hypocoristic forms (both -ko and truncated forms) eventually develop additional pragmatics associated with a lower social status. As a result, for those occupying a higher place in the social hierarchy, hypocorisms are gradually replaced by full forms. Further comparison of chronicles with birchbark letters confirmed the initial adaptive function of hypocorisms and helped establish the time frame of the “adaptive” stage of Christian hypocoristic forms usage more precisely.
Novgorod birchbark letter no 1021 (the second half of the twelfth century) is a record of a purchase by two partners of a large batch of squirrel pelts, indicating the amount of money paid for the fur. Comparison of these data with the testimonies of other recently discovered birchbark documents made it possible to reconstruct the system of relations linking the three main types of means of payment that were in use in Rus’ in the pre-Mongol period: silver, fur and leather «banknotes». Based on these ratios, among which the central one is the equivalence of silver grivna to «semnitsa» (seven times forty) squirrel pelts, the article proposes a detailed reconstruction of the financial operation reflected by the document.
This article presents a diachronic study of third-person pronouns' expansion in the Soikkola dialect of the Ingrian language (Uralic family, Finnic group). A preliminary analysis of the data revealed that all personal subject pronouns are by default explicitly expressed. This pattern is unusual for other Uralic languages, where pronouns are mostly omitted either in all three grammatical persons, or in first- and second person, in contrast to the third one. To clarify the genesis and reconstruct the potential expansion of subject pronouns, modern Indrian transcripts were compared with the earliest Ingrian text (19th century tale), on the one hand, and with the mid-twentieth century narratives (the data of P. Ariste), on the other hand. The analysis showed that in Ingrian of the 19th century in praeterite clauses third-person pronouns were mostly omitted, while first- and second person pronouns were usually explicitly expressed. The records of the mid-XX century reflected a similar asymmetry of the 1st / 2nd vs. of the 3rd person not only in praeterite, but also in present clauses. Thus, it was reaffirmed that during the 2nd half of the XX century, a massive expansion of third-person subject pronouns took place in Ingrian . The reasons for this phenomenon, apparently, are due to Russian infuence in the course of intensively increased contacts after the 1930s, and can be interpreted as a borrowing a of a subject syntactic pattern.
The paper focuses on the colophons and marginalia of the Arkhangelsk Gospel of 1092. The following three scribal notes of Michkо are considered: a cryptogram of five letters inscribed in the cross, a note about a П-shaped headpiece and a lengthy penitential colophon, the beginning of which is damaged. A full reading of the dated colophon of presbyter Peter, who used non-standard abbreviations in it, is given. The first publication of a marginalium about “verblenye” crosses is offered. The note of Zavid on the last page of the manuscript is analyzed.
The authors publish a unique inscription with the second half-verse of Psalm 45: 6 on а 12th century brick from the excavations of the “Mernaya izba” on the Castle hill of Hrodna (Grodno; Republic of Belarus). The tradition of writing Psalm 45: 6 in church buildings goes back to the Early Byzantine period and is associated with its “apotropaic” character, which should protect the building from earthquakes. From the middle Byzantine period Psalm 45: 6 is known to also appear on bricks. A great role in this tradition was played by the “Diegesis about the Great church”, according to which Psalm 45: 6 was written by order of Justinian on the plinth bricks of Hagia Sophia. From Byzantium, this tradition came to Rus’, where we see Psalm 45: 6 written, on the one hand, in Greek on the mosaic above the apse of St. Sophia in Kiev, and on the other hand, in Slavonic on a plinth brick from a church in Hrodna dating from the second half of the 12th century.